Addiction

 addiction.

.

Description or Situation

 .

.

Overview

Addiction is a multifaceted subject representing a wide array of conditions experienced by most human beings. Having a heavy degree of resistance or discipline can result in keeping most obvious or common addictions at bey. Subtle addictions are less noticeable and can more often than not be hidden from exposure yet still carry with it the repercussions associated with over indulgence of stimuli. The fact is that most anything can become an addiction if the gratification interferes, disrupts or severely impacts our lives and those around us. Addictions of any kind can lead us astray or derail us from our course of life. Victims of addiction extend beyond the self inflicted. Children of addicted parents can experience a life style that might of been avoided which can impact and entire family line or lineage and future generations. Children with addictions can consume a great deal of resources from vulnerable parents often destroying their ability to make it through those senior years. Addiction is more of a characteristic or condition often subject to the changes from choice rather than a typical disease despite popular opinion. Some addictive characteristics are cultural and generational such as with the uses of social media or video games and can have the same results as typical or common addictions.

.

.

.

What is addiction?

Addiction is a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences. It can be thought of as a disease or biological process leading to such behaviors. The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., something perceived as being positive or desirable). Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and occurs over time from chronically high levels of exposure to an addictive stimulus.

 

.

Addiction and dependence glossary

.

Addiction 

A state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.

.

Reinforcing stimuli

Stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them.

.

Rewarding stimuli

Stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive or as something to be approached.

.

Addictive drug

A drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing.

.

Addictive behavior

A behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing.

.

Sensitization

An amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it.

.

Drug tolerance

The diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose.

.

Drug sensitization

The escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose.

.

Dependence

An adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., drug intake).

.

Physical dependence

Dependence that involves persistent physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium tremens).

.

Psychological dependence

Dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia).

.

.

.

What causes addiction?

Doctors and psychologists say there is a link between the repeated use of an addictive substance and how the human brain experiences pleasure - its use has a nice reward, leading to further and more frequent use. The addictive substance, be it nicotine, alcohol or some drug actually causes physical changes in some nerve cells in the brain. Another name for a nerve cell is a neuron. Neurons release neurotransmitters into the synapses (empty spaces) between nerve cells, which are received by receptors in other neurons.

.

What is a neurotransmitter - it is a chemical that a nerve cell releases, which thereby transmits an impulse from one nerve cell to another nerve cell, organ, muscle, or other tissue. Put simply, a neurotransmitter is a messenger of neurological data from one cell to another cell.

 

Tolerance increases - After a while, the user of the potentially addictive substance does not get the same pleasure and has to increase the dose - his/her body’s tolerance to it increases. Eventually, the user no longer experiences pleasure from the substance and takes it simply to prevent withdrawal symptoms - taking the substance just makes them feel normal. Experts say that when tolerance increases, the risk of addiction is much greater.

[Source 1] , [Source 2] , [Source 3] , [Source 4].

.

.

.

What are the effects of addiction?

Addiction effects an astoundingly high number of individuals and society as a whole through the direct adverse effects, associated healthcare costs, long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer with smoking tobacco, liver cirrhosis with drinking alcohol, or meth mouth from intravenous methamphetamine), the functional consequences of altered neural plasticity in the brain, and the consequent loss of productivity. Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behavior, preoccupation with substance or behavior, and continued use despite consequences. Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs). Other effects associated with addiction impact family members, friends and coworkers as well. Many addictions result in behavioral changes often causing recipients to do things they are not accustomed to doing. Theft, infidelity and dishonesty are just a few characteristics associated with addiction. Self destruction varies by degree and duration of time but is typically inevitable unless intervention occurs. People who have relationships with those afflicted by addiction also suffer greatly, .... some more than others becoming victims of criminal action. On many occasions children who grow up with the afflicted often become addicts as well.

.

Addiction is said to be a subtle a killer of families and destroys society. Most anything with alluring attributes has the potential to cause variations of addiction within us all.

.

.

  Find  "solutions to addiction" 

.

.

.

Resources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addiction

https://www.psycom.net/am-i-an-alcoholic-alcohol-use-disorder

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction/what-causes-addiction.php

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/3076712/t/big-mystery-what-causes-addiction/#.VdIKAJdUXNM

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-teenage-mind/201001/what-causes-addiction

http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/drug-abuse-addiction

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/drug-addiction/basics/causes/con-20020970

Addiction