Nuclear / radioactive event

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Description or situation

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Overview

This subject matter should not to be taken lightly.  A nuclear or radioactive event can be detrimental to not only specific communities but for entire regions of population.  Whats more is the effects of such an event can linger and migrate for many years effecting future generations of life on earth.  A radioactive event can be the result of natural causes or from human built technology.  They can occur accidentally or with intent.  Advancements in technology have brought forth a new era for inhabitants on Earth.  With those advancements comes the need to protect ourselves from disastrous circumstances encountered from accidents or misuse of advanced and potentially dangerous technology. 

Nuclear technology has found a  place in the advancements for the the human race as a monumental achievement yet in the eyes of many is considered obsolete, archaic and not worth the price. Technical advancements are now pushing the boundaries to new heights as we explore and open doors to new forms of energy.  Until such a time when these discoveries are made available for use by the general population we are subject to using dangerous technology from past developments. 

The increased use and availability of nuclear technology may bring added risks to life on Earth and may be better off circumvented as a daily source of power.  Accidents happen, ... as does purposeful intent to destroy by way of nuclear technology.  As we advance and marvel in our own technological advancements we are also deteriorating as a global society.  We just cant seem to get a long for extended periods of time without picking a fight with one another.  In earlier ages of societal development most wars were common and typically fought on the ground between rival parties or regions for what ever reasons as depicted in the Bible and other historical references.  Now days the concept of war often entertains the use of nuclear devices.  As long as conflict continues between rival groups the potential will exist to seek out extreme measures in order to defeat or suppress the opposition. 

Nuclear technology used innocently for powering cities and industry also stands the potential for accidents as was realized in recent history with the Fukashima incident.  Wind and ocean current deliver radioactive contaminants to regions around the globe effecting us all.  A nuclear event of any kind is one to be prepared for. Most survival minded enthusiasts have a fair understanding that any nuclear event, ... be it an accident or intentional, ... should be avoided at all costs.  For that reason many people tend to reside in nuclear free zones or regions absent of such technology so as to give themselves a fighting chance in case of accidental events.  Preppers often choose to live further away from potential areas which might be considered a target such as large cities and military installations.  Despite the cause or reason, ... a nuclear or radioactive event in any scenario is bad for us all.

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The following is intended to assist those seeking information related to the cause and effects of a nuclear or radioactive event.

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What is a nuclear or radioactive event?

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A nuclear and radioactive event is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or a facility.

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Additional definition 

An unexpected event involving a nuclear weapon, facility, or component, resulting in any of the following, but not constituting a nuclear weapon(s) accident: a. an increase in the possibility of explosion or radioactive contamination or errors committed in the assembly, testing, loading, or transportation of equipment, and/or the malfunctioning of equipment and materiel which could lead to an unintentional operation of all or part of the weapon arming and/or firing sequence, or which could lead to a substantial change in yield, or increased dud probability; and any act of God, unfavorable environment, or condition resulting in damage to the weapon, facility, or component. [Source]

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What are the effects of a Nuclear or radioactive event?

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Contamination of life,  destruction of property and assets

Radioactive contamination, ... also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from IAEA definition).

Such contamination presents a hazard because of the radioactive decay of the contaminants, which emit harmful ionising radiation such as alpha particles or beta particles, gamma rays or neutrons. The degree of hazard is determined by the concentration of the contaminants, the energy of the radiation being emitted, the type of radiation, and the proximity of the contamination to organs of the body. It is important to be clear that the contamination gives rise to the radiation hazard, and the terms "radiation" and "contamination" are not interchangeable.

Contamination may affect a person, a place, an animal, or an object such as clothing. Following an atmospheric nuclear weapon discharge or a nuclear reactor containment breach, the air, soil, people, plants, and animals in the vicinity will become contaminated by nuclear fuel and fission products. A spilled vial of radioactive material like uranyl nitrate may contaminate the floor and any rags used to wipe up the spill. Cases of widespread radioactive contamination include the Bikini Atoll, the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the Chernobyl disaster, and the area around the Mayak facility in Russia.

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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation. A material that spontaneously emits such radiation — which includes alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays and conversion electrons — is considered radioactive.

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Nuclear meltdown,  (Definition for power plant accidents)

A nuclear meltdown is an informal term for a severe nuclear reactor accident that results in core damage from overheating. The term is not officially defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency or by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However, it has been defined to mean the accidental melting of the core of a nuclear reactor, and is in common usage a reference to the core's either complete or partial collapse. "Core melt accident" and "partial core melt" are the analogous technical terms for a meltdown.

A meltdown is considered very serious because of the potential for radioactive materials to breach all containment and escape (or be released) into the environment, resulting in radioactive contamination and fallout, and potentially leading to radiation poisoning of people and animals nearby. [Source]

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Nuclear fallout,   (Definition encompassing a deadly by-product of a nuclear event)

Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast or a nuclear reaction conducted in an UN shielded facility, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and shock wave have passed. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust and ash created when a nuclear weapon explodes, but such dust can also originate from a damaged nuclear plant. Fallout may take the form of black rain (rain darkened by particulates). This radioactive dust, consisting of material either directly vaporized by a nuclear blast or charged by exposure, is a highly dangerous kind of radioactive contamination [Source]

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Effects of nuclear explosions  

 The energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated in the troposphere can be divided into four basic categories:

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Blast—40–50% of total energy.

Thermal radiation—30–50% of total energy.

Ionizing radiation—5% of total energy (more in a neutron bomb).

Residual radiation—5–10% of total energy with the mass of the explosion.

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However, ... depending on the design of the weapon and the environment in which it is detonated the energy distributed to these categories can be increased or decreased. The blast effect is created by the coupling of immense amounts of energy, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum, with the surroundings. Locations such as submarine, surface, air burst, or exo-atmospheric determine how much energy is produced as blast and how much as radiation. In general, denser media around the bomb, like water, absorb more energy, and create more powerful shock waves while at the same time limiting the area of its effect. When an air burst occurs lethal blast and thermal effects proportionally scale much more rapidly than lethal radiation effects, as higher and higher yield nuclear weapons are used.

The physical-damage mechanisms of a nuclear weapon (blast and thermal radiation) are identical to those of conventional explosives. However, the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times more powerful per gram and the temperatures reached are briefly in the tens of millions of degrees.

Energy from a nuclear explosive is initially released in several forms of penetrating radiation. When there is a surrounding material such as air, rock, or water, this radiation interacts with and rapidly heats it to an equilibrium temperature (i.e. so that the matter is at the same temperature as the atomic bomb's matter). This causes vaporization of surrounding material resulting in its rapid expansion. Kinetic energy created by this expansion contributes to the formation of a shock wave. When a nuclear detonation occurs in air near sea level, much of the released energy interacts with the atmosphere and creates a shock wave which expands spherically from the hypo-center. Intense thermal radiation at the hypo-center forms a nuclear fireball and if the burst is low enough, it is often associated mushroom cloud. In a burst at high altitudes, where the air density is low, more energy is released as ionizing gamma radiation and x-rays than an atmosphere-displacing shock wave.

In 1942 there was some initial speculation among the scientists developing the first nuclear weapons that there might be a possibility of igniting the Earth's atmosphere with a large enough nuclear explosion. This would concern a nuclear reaction of two nitrogen atoms forming a carbon and an oxygen atom, with release of energy. This energy would heat up the remaining nitrogen enough to keep the reaction going until all nitrogen atoms were consumed. Hans Bethe was assigned the task of studying whether there was a possibility in the very early days, and concluded there was no possibility due to inverse Compton effect cooling of the fireball.  Richard Hamming, a mathematician, was asked to make a similar calculation just before Trinity, with the same result. Nevertheless, the notion has persisted as a rumor for many years, and was the source of black humor at the Trinity test.

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Additional effects associated with a nuclear blast is the EMP, (Electro-magnetic-pulse). The potential for electrical power to be disrupted for long periods of time exists for surrounding regions, .... depending upon the delivery system. The specifics of an EMP are not discussed in detail within this content.  [More]

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History of discovery

Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by the French scientist Henri Becquerel, while working with phosphorescent materials. These materials glow in the dark after exposure to light, and he suspected that the glow produced in cathode ray tubes by X-rays might be associated with phosphorescence. He wrapped a photographic plate in black paper and placed various phosphorescent salts on it. All results were negative until he used uranium salts. The uranium salts caused a blackening of the plate in spite of the plate being wrapped in black paper. These radiations were given the name "Becquerel Rays". It soon became clear that the blackening of the plate had nothing to do with phosphorescence, as the blackening was also produced by non-phosphorescent salts of uranium and metallic uranium. It became clear from these experiments that there was a form of invisible radiation that could pass through paper and was causing the plate to react as if exposed to light. At first, it seemed as though the new radiation was similar to the then recently discovered X-rays. Further research by Becquerel, Ernest Rutherford, Paul Villard, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and others showed that this form of radioactivity was significantly more complicated. Rutherford was the first to realize that all such elements decay in accordance with the same mathematical exponential formula. Rutherford and his student Frederick Soddy were the first to realize that many decay processes resulted in the transmutation of one element to another. Subsequently, the radioactive displacement law of Fajans and Soddy was formulated to describe the products of alpha and beta decay. The early researchers also discovered that many other chemical elements, besides uranium, have radioactive isotopes. A systematic search for the total radioactivity in uranium ores also guided Pierre and Marie Curie to isolate two new elements: polonium and radium. Except for the radioactivity of radium, the chemical similarity of radium to barium made these two elements difficult to distinguish. There were some early systematic hazard investigations, and as early as 1902 William Herbert Rollins wrote almost despairingly that his warnings about the dangers involved in careless use of X-rays was not being heeded, either by industry or by his colleagues. By this time Rollins had proved that X-rays could kill experimental animals, could cause a pregnant guinea pig to abort, and that they could kill a fetus. He also stressed that "animals vary in susceptibility to the external action of X-light" and warned that these differences be considered when patients were treated by means of X-rays.

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Nuclear events in history

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Nuclear or radiation accidents and incidents throughout history are more numerous than one might believe. Worldwide there have been 99 plus accidents at nuclear power plants. Fifty-seven accidents have occurred since the Chernobyl disaster, and 57% (56 out of 99) of all nuclear-related accidents have occurred in the USA. Serious nuclear power plant accidents include the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011), Chernobyl disaster (1986), Three Mile Island accident (1979), and the SL-1 accident (1961). Nuclear-powered submarine core meltdown and other mishaps include the K-19 (1961), K-11 (1965), K-27 (1968), K-140 (1968), K-429 (1970), K-222 (1980), K-314 (1985), and K-431 (1985). Serious radiation accidents include the Kyshtym disaster, Windscale fire, radiotherapy accident in Costa Rica,  radiotherapy accident in Zaragoza,  radiation accident in Morocco,  Goiania accident,  radiation accident in Mexico City, radiotherapy unit accident in Thailand,  and the Mayapuri radiological accident in India. The IAEA maintains a website reporting recent accidents.

Radiation and nuclear mishaps or attacks have occurred as a result or failure from nuclear power plant accidents, nuclear reactor attacks, radiation and other accidents and incidents, worldwide nuclear testing & trafficking and thefts of radioactive materials.  [Source]

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According to a Department of Defense report, there have been at least 32 “accidents involving nuclear weapons.”  And the report only counts US accidents which occurred before 1980.  “Narrative Summaries of Accidents Involving U.S. Nuclear Weapons” briefly recounts each of these incidents.  They include such gaffes as nuclear bombs inadvertently falling through bomb bay doors; the accidental firing of a retrorocket on an ICBM; a bomber crash involving the vast dispersal of radioactive debris; and the loss of fissile material and nuclear bombs (which are “still out there somewhere”). These “nuclear accidents” –which the report defines as  “unexpected event[s] involving nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons components”–  have occurred over the Pacific Ocean (twice), over the Atlantic Ocean (twice), and over the Mediterranean Sea;  they’ve happened on the territory of our allies in Spain, Greenland, England, Morocco, and another undetermined overseas base; and in the states of Arkansas, California (twice), South Carolina, North Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana (twice), Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico (twice), Ohio (twice), South Dakota, Texas (twice), and Washington.

Some of these accidents were disclosed for the first time only recently.  The DOD explained that these nuclear accidents “may or may not [have been] divulged at the time depending upon the possibility of public hazard or alarm.”

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List of nuclear disasters

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List of attacks on nuclear plants

List of Chernobyl-related articles

List of civilian nuclear accidents

List of civilian radiation accidents

List of crimes involving radioactive substances

List of criticality accidents and incidents

List of nuclear meltdown accidents

List of Milestone nuclear explosions

List of military nuclear accidents

List of nuclear and radiation accidents

List of nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll

List of nuclear weapons tests

List of sunken nuclear submarines

List of articles about the Three Mile Island accident

Worldwide nuclear testing counts and summary

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Likelihood of a nuclear event

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U.S. policymakers agree that as possible terrorist attacks go, the worst-case-scenario would involve detonation of a nuclear bomb in a major American city. This most catastrophic of scenarios provides ample fodder for the plot of television dramas, but the actual likelihood of such an event is open to debate.

For nearly 65 years, a cloud has been hanging over the human race -- the possibility of a nuclear bomb that could incinerate millions of people. Fortunately, for more than six decades and a proliferation of nuclear nations and armaments, cooler heads have prevailed. The major nuclear powers are making efforts to continue the streak of nuclear deterrence. Last month, the U.S. and Russia signed a new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) that will reduce their nuclear stockpiles by about 30 percent over the next several years, and President Obama hosted a 47 nation Nuclear Security Summit in Washington. This week, representatives from 189 nations are meeting New York for Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) review conference to deal with the potential spread of nuclear weaponry in the Middle East and other parts of the world.

Unfortunately, the fact that August 9, 1945 was the last time a nuclear bomb was detonated and 189 countries are discussing how to stop the spread of nuclear weaponry doesn't mean that the likelihood of a nuclear bomb detonating and killing tens of thousands or even millions of people is anywhere near zero.

Various experts estimate the chances of a nuclear detonation in the next 10 years at somewhere between 10 and 30 percent.

Martin Hellman, professor emeritus of electrical engineering at Stanford and co-inventor of public key cryptography, estimates the odds at 1 percent per year going forward.

"If the odds are 1 percent per year, in 10 years the likelihood is almost 10 percent, and in 50 years 40 percent if there is no substantial change," he said.

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Potential nuclear destruction in America's past

In the western United States, ruins exist in southern California, Colorado,
Arizona and Nevada, in which the radiated heat was so intense as to
liquefy the rock surface.

In 1850, Ives Walker was the first to view some of the Death Valley ruins.
He discovered a city about a mile long , with the lines of streets and the
positions of buildings still visible.

At the center he found a huge rock, 20 to 30 feet high, with the remains
of an enormous structure atop it. The south side of both rock and building
was melted and vitrified.

An associate reported: "The whole region between the Gila and San Juan
Rivers, is covered with remains. The ruins of cities . . .which must be
most extensive, and they are burnt out and vitrified in part, full of fused
stones and craters caused by fires which were hot enough to liquefy rock or
metal. There are paving stones and houses torn with monstrous cracks."

It is not known who the inhabitants were.The early settling in North America
occurred in two waves, the first corresponding with the early post-Flood
mapping of the earth, and the second around 2200 BC, soon after the Babel
dispersion.

We would place the most likely time for the cities’ destruction to be in the
period 2000 to 1000 BC.

If an unknown post-Flood civilization was indeed destroyed by fire in
western North America, we would expect that such a holocaust would have
been imprinted on the memory of those who survived, to be told and retold
to the successive generations.

And this is precisely what we do find.

Mexican writings, speak concerning a past event in U.S.A territory:
   The Popul Vuh, reputedly the oldest historical text of the ancient Maya,
describes the destructive effects (unfortunately quite recognizable to us
after Hiroshima) of a fire from the sky that put out eyes and decomposed
flesh and entrails. Great cities to the north (i.e., in the territory of
what is today the U.S.A.) were destroyed.

Canadian Indians, speak concerning a past event in U.S.A territory:
   Canadian Indians speak of "men who flew upon the skies" and had shining
cities and grand homes "to the south" (i.e., in what is today the U.S.A.).
Then an enemy nation came "and there was terrible destruction. All life in
the cities was gone—nothing but silence remained."

Indians resident in today’s U.S.A. territory recall:
   Hopi Indians recount that "some of these of the Third World" flew to a
great city, attacked it and returned so quickly that the inhabitants did
not know where their attackers came from. Soon many nations flew to attack
one another. "So corruption and destruction came."

Here we see a consistency between three ancient reports – one from the
north of the affected region, one from the south, and the third from actually
within the same region. Such testimony is not to be dismissed lightly.

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Click this

World Needs to Get Ready for the Next Nuclear Plant Accident

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  Find  "solutions to nuclear & radioactive events" 

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Videos

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The medical consequences of nuclear war fallout

Nuclear War-What It Would Look Like

Radioactive contamination

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References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fallout

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_meltdown

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_explosion

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/nuclear+incident

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_nuclear_explosions

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-04-03/world-needs-to-get-ready-for-next-nuclear-power-plant-accident

https://nsarchive.wordpress.com/2013/10/09/document-friday-narrative-summaries-of-accidents-involving-nuclear-weapons/

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