Tornado’s, Twister’s & Hurricane’s

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Description or Situation

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Overview

Tornado's, twisters & hurricanes often present a degree of attraction, curiosity and destructive force beyond imagination. These are conditions in weather that can cause physical transformations in geographical surroundings as well as buildings or structures and impose life changing results for many people. They can be mesmerizing , ... worthy of photographing as well as to provoke fear, ...  second to no other disasters on earth. They often appear out of nowhere and take on a life of their own as they grow while traversing across the landscape. Despite the type or size , ... tornado's, twisters, hurricanes and other cyclonic events can occur in various degrees of effects. The forces and power associated with these events have been known to relocate large trucks and ships or drive a plastic straw through the middle of a wooden telephone pole. They are known for ripping apart concrete and metal buildings while skipping over nearby homes and structures without causing damage. Some are expected as routine conditions of weather and pose very little threat to lives and property while other events can become destructive and disastrous beyond measure. These types events have claimed many lives and property throughout history and have the potential to change the surface of the planet as we know it.

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The following is intended to validate and provided information with the potential destructive nature associated with "tornado's, twister's & hurricanes"

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What is a tornado, twister or hurricane?

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Tornado's and twisters

A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters or cyclones, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider sense, to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornado's come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornado's have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (180 km/h), are about 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornado's can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (480 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).

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Various types of tornado's include the landspout, multiple vortex tornado, and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud. They are generally classified as non-super-cellular tornado's that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornado's. These spiraling columns of air frequently develop in tropical areas close to the equator, and are less common at high latitudes. Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirls, and steam devil downbursts are frequently confused with tornado's, though their action is dissimilar.

There are several scales for rating the strength of tornado's. The Fujita scale rates tornado's by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale. An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornado's. Doppler radar data, photogrammetry, and ground swirl patterns (cycloidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating.  [Source]

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Tornado rating chart

» » » Find more info here « « «

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Hurricanes

A hurricane is a huge storm! It can be up to 600 miles across and have strong winds spiraling inward and upward at speeds of 75 to 200 mph. Each hurricane usually lasts for over a week, moving 10-20 miles per hour over the open ocean. Hurricanes gather heat and energy through contact with warm ocean waters. Evaporation from the seawater increases their power. Hurricanes rotate in a counter-clockwise direction around an "eye" in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. The center of the storm or "eye" is the calmest part. It has only light winds and fair weather. When they come onto land, the heavy rain, strong winds and large waves can damage buildings, trees and cars.  [Source]


A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.

Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation. This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they rarely form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 2,000 km (62 and 1,243 mi) in diameter.

Tropical refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas. Cyclone refers to their cyclonic nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect.

In addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, and tornado's. They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their primary energy source. For this reason, coastal regions are particularly vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as compared to inland regions. Heavy rains, however, can cause significant flooding inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometers (25 mi) from the coastline. Though their effects on human populations are often devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions. They also carry heat energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which may play an important role in modulating regional and global climate.   [Source]

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What are the effects?

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Tornado's & twisters

There are about a thousand tornado's every year in the United States. While 74 percent of tornado's are weak, they have a significant but reparable effect on humans and nature. The impact of the remaining 26 percent can be much more substantial. Tornado's are different than other natural disasters, such as hurricanes, because they are confined to a relatively small area (typically a few hundred meters wide). Though hurricanes have more total energy, the energy density within a tornado can be much higher. See the selection of videos below.

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Hurricane

Although a storm surge is perhaps the most dangerous and destructive part of a hurricane, its winds and heavy rains can be felt well inland from a storm's landfall. Tornado's also are an effect of hurricanes.

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Rainfall-Induced Flooding

The heavy rains associated with a tropical weather system are responsible not only for major flooding in areas where the storm initially strikes, but also can affect areas hundreds of miles from where the storm originally made landfall.

During landfall, it is not uncommon for 5-10 inches of rain to fall. If the storm is large and moving slowly, rainfall could be even more excessive. As the storm moves inland, and is downgraded to a tropical depression, the continued circulation, tropical moisture, and topography can contribute to copious amounts of rainfall.

Intense flooding can also occur from tropical depressions and storms that do not reach hurricane strength.

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Storm Surge

A storm surge is a rapid rise in the level of water that moves onto land as the eye of the storm makes landfall. Generally speaking, the stronger the hurricane, the greater the storm surge.

As a hurricane approaches the coast, its winds drive water toward the shore. Once the edge of the storm reaches the shallow waters of the continental shelf, water piles up. Winds of hurricane strength force the water onto shore.

At first, the water level climbs slowly, but as the eye of the storm approaches, water rises rapidly. Wave after wave hits the coast as tons of moving water hammer away at any structure on the coastline. A cubic yard of water weighs about 1,700 pounds.

The surge is greater if a hurricane's track is perpendicular to the coastline, allowing the surge to build higher. The storm surge is also greater if the storm affects a bay or if it makes landfall at high tide. The greatest storm surge occurs to the right of where the eye makes landfall.

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Winds

The winds of a hurricane range from 74 mph (65 knots) in a minimal storm to greater than 155 mph (136 knots) in a catastrophic one. Accurate readings of high wind gusts during landfall are difficult to obtain because anemometers (wind-speed measuring devices) at reporting stations can be ripped from their foundations.

Wind is responsible for much of the structural damage caused by hurricanes. High winds uproot trees and tear down power lines. The maximum winds from fast moving and powerful storms may remain high, even when the storm is well inland. Often this is actual wind speed combined with the speed of the storm.

Tropical cyclones can also trigger tornado's. Each storm has a unique pattern of tornado's whose frequency and occurrence is highly variable from one storm to the next.

Tornado's spawned from hurricanes are more likely during an intense hurricane or one that is intensifying at or near landfall.  [Source]

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Tornado's, twisters & hurricanes in history

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1 Tornado outbreaks

1.1 Most tornado's in single 24-hour period

1.2 Longest continuous outbreak and largest autumnal outbreak

1.3 Greatest number of tornado's spawned from a hurricane

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2 Tornado casualties and damage

2.1 Deadliest single tornado in world history

2.2 Deadliest single tornado in US history

2.3 Most damaging tornado

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3 Largest and most powerful tornado's

3.1 Highest winds observed in a tornado

3.2 Longest damage path and duration

3.3 Longest path and duration tornado family

3.4 Largest path width

3.5 Highest forward speed

3.6 Greatest pressure drop

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4 Early tornado's

4.1 Earliest known tornado in Europe

4.2 Earliest known tornado in the Americas

4.3 First confirmed tornado and first tornado fatality in present-day United States

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5 Exceptional tornado droughts

5.1 Longest span without a tornado rated F5 or EF5

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6 Exceptional survivors

6.1 Longest distance carried by a tornado

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7 Exceptional coincidences

7.1 Codell, Kansas

7.2 Tanner/Harvest, Alabama

7.3 Moore, Oklahoma

7.4 Tuscaloosa, Alabama

7.5 Birmingham, Alabama

7.6 St. Louis, Missouri

7.7 McConnell AFB/Haysville, Kansas

7.8 Jackson, Tennessee

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» » » Hurricanes in US history « « «

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Videos

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World's Biggest TORNADO Ever !! 2015th Full NatGeo Documentary

21 Deadliest Tornadoes EVER - Caught in HD VIDEO

World's Deadliest Tornado (Full Documentary)

Super Hurricanes and Typhoons

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Find "Solutions to tornado's, twisters & hurricanes"

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References

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tornado

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_cyclone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tornado_records

http://www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado/index.html

http://www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado/ef-scale.html

http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-hurricane.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_hurricanes

http://www.ehow.com/info_8565474_effects-tornadoes-humans-nature.html

http://www.weather.com/safety/hurricane/news/hurricane-damages-effects-20120330

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